From 2008 to 2009, viral circulation was detected in Braila and Dolj countries, were 4 human cases were reported. In 2010 human cases were distributed in 19 districts all over the country, with clusters of infection in the Southeastern district of Constanta and in the urban areas of Blaj (in the western Romania) and Bucharest. In 2011 and 2012, most of the cases were recorded in Bucharest urban area. From August to October 2013, 24 human cases were reported from different municipalities of Romania: Bacau, Braila, Bucharest, Constanta, Galati, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Mures, Sibiu and Tulcea. In Romania, during 2016-2017, a significant increase in the number of WNND cases was reported at the national level, associated with high mortality rates (25.5%). Comma, confusion, obtundation, sleepiness and depressed deep tendon reflexes were symptoms predicting a severe outcome. In July 27, 2018, 5 Romanians have been diagnosed with meningitis caused by the West Nile Virus.
80% of infected people have no symptoms. High fever and headaches are the signs that require the urgent presentation at the nearest clinic. The Romanians was advised to avoid exposure to mosquitoes, to wear long-sleeved clothing and long pants and to prevent mosquitoes from accessing the house (The Romania Journal).
Symptoms: No symptoms in most people; Febrile illness (fever) in some people (about 1 in 5); Serious symptoms in a few people. About 1 in 150 people who are infected develop a severe illness: encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) or meningitis (inflammation of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord). People over 60 years of age and people with certain medical conditions (cancer, diabetes, hypertension, kidney disease) are at greater risk.
Prevention: No WNV vaccines are licensed for use in humans. Prevention of WNVD depends on community-level mosquito central programs to reduce vector densities personal protective measures to decrease exposure to infected mosquitoes, and screening of blood and organ donors.
Personal protective measures include use of mosquito repellents, wearing long-sleeved shirts and long pants, and limiting outdoor exposure from dusk to dawn.
Using air conditioning, installing window and door screens, and reducing peridomestic mosquito breeding sites can further decrease the risk for WNV exposure.