From Greek: ”grape-cluster berry”, Latin: aureus, ”golden”, is a Gram positive coccal bacterium also known as ”golden staph” and ”oro saphira”.It appears as grape-like clusters when viewed through a microscope, and has large, round, golden-yellow colonies, often with hemolysis, when grown on blood agar plates.
S. aureus is catalase-positive, this means, it can produce the enzyme catalase.
S. aureus produces various enzymes and exotoxins.
B. anthracis is a Gram positive, endospore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, with a width of 1.0–1.2 μm and a length of 3–5 μm. It is one of the few bacteria known to synthesize a protein capsule (poly-D-gamma-glutamic acid).Like Bordetella pertussis, it forms a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase exotoxin known as (edema factor), along with a lethal factor.
B. anthracis spores are extraordinarily well-suited to use (in powdered and aerosol form) as biological weapons.
L. monocytogenes is a Gram positive bacterium, named after Joseph Lister.L. Motile via flagella at 30°C and below, but usually not at 37°C, L. monocytogenes can instead move within eukaryotic cells by explosive polymerization of actin filaments (known as comet tails or actin rockets).
Listeria monocytogenes can cause meningitis in newborns.Pregnant mothers are often advised not to eat soft cheese such as: Brie, Camembert, feta, and Queso Blanco Fresco”, which may be contaminated.
Bacillus cereus is a Grame positive, rod-shaped, motile, beta hemolytic bacterium.Some strains are harmful to humans and cause foodborne illness, while other strains can be beneficial as probiotics for animals.It is the cause of “fried rice syndrome”, as the bacteria are classically contracted from fried rice dishes that have been sitting at room temperature for hours.
B. cereus bacteria are facultative anaerobes, and produce endospores. Its virulence factors include cereolysin and phospholipase C.
Escherichia coli also known as E. coli is a Gram negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod shaped bacterium of the genus Escherichia.
Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes can cause serious food poisoning in their hosts. The harmless strains are part of the normal flora of the gut, and can benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K2, and preventing colonization of the intestine with pathogenic bacteria.
Clostridium botulinum is a Gram positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming, motile bacterium with the ability to produce the neurotoxin botulinum.
The botulinum toxin can cause a severe flaccid paralytic disease in humans and animals and is the most potent toxin known to humankind, natural or synthetic, with a lethal dose of 1.3-2.1ng/kg in humans.Depending on their ability to produce botulinum toxin there are four distinct groups, (I-IV).
Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family.
There are two species of Salmonella: Salmonella bongori and Salmonella enterica.
Salmonella enterica is further divided into six subspecies and over 2500 serovars.Salmonellae are found worldwide in both cold-blooded and warm-blooded animals, and in the environment.
Clostridium perfringens is a Gram positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore forming bacterium of the genus Clostridium.
C. perfringens is ever present in nature and can be found as a normal component of decaying vegetation, marine sediment, the intestinal tract of humans and other vertebrates, insects, and soil.
C. perfringens is the third most common cause of food poisoning in the United Kingdom and the United States.
A. flavus is complex fungus in its morphology and can be classified into two groups based on the size of sclerotia produced.
Group I consists of L strains with sclerotia greater than 400 μm in diameter.
Group II consists of S strains with sclerotia less than 400 μm in diameter.
Both L and S strains can produce the two most common aflatoxins (B1 and B2).
Unique to the S strains is the production of aflatoxin G1 and G2 which typically are not produced by A. flavus.
Stachybotryschartarum , also called: Stachybotrys atra , Stachybotrys alternans or Stilbospora chartarumor, is a black mold that produces its conidia in slime heads.
S. chartarum was originally discovered on the wall of a house in Prague in 1837, by Czech mycologist August Carl Joseph Corda.
It requires high moisture content in order to grow and is associated with wet gypsum material and wallpaper.
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a curved, rod-shaped, Gram negative bacterium found in brackish salt water, which, when ingested, causes gastrointestinal illness in humans.
This bacterium is motile, with a single, polar flagellum.While infection can occur by the fecal-oral route, ingestion of bacteria in raw or undercooked seafood, usually oysters, is the predominant cause of acute gastroenteritis.
Yellow Fever Virus, known historically as Yellow Jack, Yellow Plague, or Bronze John,is an acute viral disease.
The disease is caused by the Yellow Fever Virus and is spread by the bite of the female mosquito.
It infects only humans, other primates, and several species of mosquitoes.In cities, it is spread primarily by mosquitoes of the Aedes aegypti species. The virus is an RNA virus of the genus Flavivirus.
Enterobacteria phage T4 is a bacteriophage that infects Escherichia coli bacteria.
The T4 phage is a member of the T-even phages, a group including enterobacteriophages T2 and T6.T4 is capable of undergoing only a lytic lifecycle and not the lysogenic lifecycle. The T4 phage’s double stranded DNA genome is about 169 kbp long and encodes 289 proteins.
The genus name is derived from the Latin root penicillium, meaning “painter’s brush”, and refers to the chains of conidia that resemble a broom.
The genus includes a wide variety of species molds that are the source molds of major antibiotics.
Penicillin, a drug produced by P. chrysogenum (formerly, P. notatum ), was accidentally discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1929, and found to inhibit the growth of Gram positive bacteria.
Campylobacter jejuni is a species of bacteria commonly found in animal feces. It is curved, helical-shaped, non-spore forming, Gram negative, and microaerophilic.
C. jejuni is one of the most common causes of human gastroenteritis in the world. C. jejuni is commonly associated with poultry, and it naturally colonises the digestive tract of many bird species.
It is normally a harmless commensal of the gastrointestinal tract in cattle. It can cause campylobacteriosis in calves.
The goal of study are threefold:
1. To improve the ability to memorize and recall factual information;
2. To increase your ability to interpret and analyze information
3. To improve understanding
commits itself to provide the students within the shortest possible time, additional, really useful and propose to update subjects in microbiology.This approach introduce the students in this new, miraculous and amazing world of microbiology and should help the students step to go on with courage and curiosity. Microbiology is not only a new subject matter but also a unique and peculiar world that has its own language.